Saturday, August 2, 2008

Book of Mormon Linguistics Analasis Makes Case for Book of Mormon's Testimony

Mesoamerican Linguistics
by Raymond C. Treat
http://www.restoredcovenant.org/Document.asp?CAT=Archaeology+%26+Geography&DOC=Mesoamerican+Linguistics

Those of us who believe in the Book of Mormon are aware that there is abundant information from Mesoamerican archaeology to substantiate the Book of Mormon record as authentic history. What most do not realize, however, is that scientific evidence for Book of Mormon history is not limited to archaeology but can also be found in Mesoamerican linguistics. It is important to remember that the people of the Book of Mormon left behind not only the material remains of their existence but their words as well. Linguistics
Linguistics is the scientific study of language and is one of the major subdivisions of anthropology. Much has been discovered about the nature of language and how it changes throughout time. The better the linguists understand the laws that govern the development of languages, the better they can understand the history of the peoples speaking those languages. Thus the field of linguistics reflects both the laws of language change and the history of the people speaking a particular language. Book of Mormon Languages
A careful reading of the Book of Mormon shows there are several languages being spoken. We know that two groups were directed to leave the land of Jerusalem shortly after 600 B.C.; first, the group led by Lehi and second, the people of Zarahemla (Mulekites). Obviously both groups spoke the same language at the time they left Jerusalem. However, less than 400 years later we find the people of Zarahemla unable to understand the language of the Nephites (Omni 1:30-32). Group separation is a major cause of language change. Another reason the language of the people of Zarahemla had become a separate language was because they had not brought records with them or kept records during their 400 years in the New World. Similarly, part of Lehi's colony experienced a change in language because of separation and their failure to keep written records. Shortly after the death of Lehi (2 Nephi 4:7-13), the Nephites and Lamanites became two separate groups, separated geographically as well as spiritually. The Nephites retained the records brought with them and kept current records as commanded by God. Based on the following scripture, we can conclude that by 145-123 B.C. the Lamanites had developed their own language.

And thus the language of Nephi began to be taught
among all the people of the Lamanites....
They taught them that they should keep their record,
And that they might write one to another.
Mosiah 11:49,51

In effect, this passage tells us that the Lamanites no longer knew how to speak or write the Nephite language. We are also told about an earlier Book of Mormon people who spoke still a different and unrelated language (Omni 1:35-39). These people are the Jaredites. who left the great tower at the time the Lord confused the language of the people. The language of the Jaredites was not changed, so we may assume that they remained the only people still speaking the original language which began with Adam. They brought a written record with them, no doubt the Book of Remembrance (Genesis 6:5,47 [no KJV]). Because their language had remained unchanged, they would have been the only ones who could have read the Book of Remembrance. Strong evidence confirming this belief about the Book of Remembrance comes from an analysis of the Chinese language (see Recent Book of Mormon Developments 1984:49-50). This is a remarkable example of how a written language has preserved its history within the language itself. Combining archaeology, geography and linguistics, we conclude that the Jaredites traveled across Asia from their homeland in Sumeria to China and then across the Pacific to the western coast of Mesoamerica. In summary, we have learned from just a few verses that the Book of Mormon speaks clearly of four languages by 123 B.C. The people who came from the land of Jerusalem spoke at least three languages derived from a single mother language and the Jaredites spoke an unrelated fourth language. We can then assume that the native languages spoken today by the descendents of the Book of Mormon peoples should be related to the languages spoken during Book of Mormon times and would therefore be a source for historical information. Let us now examine this assumption by looking to Mesoamerica, the geographic area where the events of the Book of Mormon took place. We will look first at the Maya, the largest language group in Mesoamerica. The Maya
The Maya area of southern Mexico, Guatemala and adjacent areas is the geographic heart of the Book of Mormon area during Nephite times. The linguistic map in Figure 1 shows the location of present-day Mayan speakers. The evidence from archaeology as well as from geography tells us that the Maya, as we know them today, are most likely a mixture of all three groups-Nephites, Lamanites and the people of Zarahemla. This means the Maya tribes are the most important Book of Mormon-related Indian group today. The Mayan Language Family
A language family is a group of languages descended from a single language. The chart in Figure 2 shows a proposed history of the Mayan language family from the original language (called Proto-Maya) to the 31 known languages today. They are all separate languages as are English and German, for example, but they share enough similarities to be part of the same family. All are spoken today except Chicomuceltec and Cholti which have recently become extinct. If the Maya represent the Nephites, Lamanites and people of Zarahemla, the Mayan language family tree in Figure 2 would be a linguistic history of these people from the time they left the land of Jerusalem shortly after 600 B.C. up to the present time. Given the present state of knowledge in the field of linguistics, we can say there is general agreement between the chart and the Book of Mormon. For example, if the Mayan Ianguage family originated in the land of Jerusalem, we would expect that this family would not be related to any other language family in the New World unless some other group of which we are unaware came from the same area. There have been several attempts over the years to relate the Mayan language family to other linguistic groups in the New World. The latest comment on these attempts confirms that there are no known relatives (Campbell and Kaufman 1985:191). Another interesting correlation is a proposal by Kaufman (1976) about the development of the Mayan family that parallels the Book of Mormon outline. His theory suggests that the mother language, Proto-Maya, was first spoken in the highlands of western Guatemala. Mayan speakers then expanded down the Usumacinta River into the lowlands of northern Guatemala where the Yucatecan and Greater Cholan subgroups are found today. Later, the Tzeltalan group returned to the highlands of Chiapas, Mexico, adjacent to western Guatemala. During the time of the Classic Lowland Maya culture (A.D. 300-900) there was much interaction which resulted in many words being borrowed both within the Mayan family and between the Mayan and nonMayan languages. Book of Mormon and Maya Patterns Compared
This theorized pattern of movement among Mayan speakers provides a striking parallel to the Book of Mormon pattern even though the dates currently proposed by Kaufman are not in agreement with the Book of Mormon. According to archaeology and geography, the most likely landing area for Lehi's group was the Pacific coast of Guatemala from which they entered the highlands. The highlands of Guatemala can be considered their original homeland. This correlates with the Guatemala highlands being the homeland of Proto-Mayan speakers. Later, Mosiah and his followers were directed down to the lowlands of northern Guatemala where they discovered the people of Zarahemla. Again, this correlates with Mayan speakers expanding down the Usumacinta River. The return of the Tzeltalan group to the highlands is reminiscent of the return of Zeniff's group to their original homeland in the highlands. The 200 or so years of spiritual peace which occurred after the appearance of Jesus would have been a time of maximum interaction between tribes which had spiritually overcome their "iteness" (4 Nephi 1:20). We can begin to see that there is an excellent correspondence between the history of the Mayan language and the Book of Mormon. The later separations on the chart give us a glimpse of the history of the descendents of the Book of Mormon peoples after the Nephite destruction. The many separations on the chart are in harmony with Moroni's statement that the Lamanites were constantly at war with each other (Mormon 4:10), implying a continuing fragmentation of existing tribes into more groups. Another important correlation between Mayan ritual language and the Book of Mormon is that both make use of paired couplets or word-pairs. Wordpairs seem to be the foundation of Hebrew poetry. The information on the Hebrew poetry in this book is relatively new. The discovery of paired couplets in the Mayan language is also relatively new (Edmonson 1971). The Mayan hieroglyphs are known to contain chiasms as well as couplets. A chiasm is a form of ancient poetry used extensively by the Hebrews. The writers in the Bible and the Book of Mormon made extensive use of chiasms. We can see that Mayan linguistics correlates closely with the pattern of the Book of Mormon groups that came from the Jerusalem area. But what about the correlation of the Jaredite language with Mesoamerican linguistics? The 0lmec
The Olmec represent the mother civilization of Mesoamerica and the New World. They appear to be the high point of the Jaredite civilization. The Book of Mormon tells us that the Jaredites came from a different area of the Middle East than the other groups. It is estimated they left about 1800 years earlier than the Nephites. In addition, they were the only group whose language was not changed by the Lord at the great tower, however through time it too changed. Obviously the Jaredites spoke a different language from those who left Jerusalem in 600 B.C. Therefore, if the Olmec are Jaredites, the Book of Mormon requires them to speak a language unrelated to the Mayan family. Determining the language spoken by the Olmec is not an easy task, because the Olmec ceased to be a people well before the time of Christ. Nevertheless, the evidence points to the Mixe-Zoquean family as the most likely language family of the Olmecs. The current speakers of Mixe and Zoque are located near the Isthmus of Tehuantepec area of southern Mexico which is near the main area occupied by the archaeological Olmec. More significantly, many words describing important Mesoamerican culture traits were borrowed by Mayan languages from Mixe-Zoquean. Food words such as "bean," "squash," "tomato," "sweet potato," "gourd," "cacao" and the verb "to grind corn" were all borrowed by the Maya (Campbell and Kaufman 1976). The verb "to count," meaning "twenty years" in two Mayan languages, was also borrowed. This supports the accepted idea that the Maya calendar, which is based on twenty, originated with the Olmec. Other important loan words are "paper,"" turkey" and "bee." We are told that the Jaredites brought swarms of bees with them (Ether 1:24). The borrowing of these words by the Mayan languages indicates that the speakers of the Mixe-Zoquean languages were well established before the Mayan languages and passed on to the Maya many of the items important to Mesoamerican life. This is exactly what we would expect the Olmec Jaredites) to have done. There is evidence in the Book of Mormon that the Jaredites had contact with those who came from Jerusalem, no doubt mostly with the people of Zarahemla. This evidence appears to be contrary to two widely-held but incorrect beliefs: 1) that the final Jaredite battle was close to 600 B.C. just before the people of Zarahemla arrived in the New World and; 2) that all but one of the Jaredites were destroyed during their final battle. The Book of Mormon and archaeology agree that the decline of the Jaredite nation was closer to 200 B.C. This would allow for several hundred years of Jaredite-Mulekite contact before the final battle. The survival of the prophet Ether, in addition to Coriantumr, tells us that not all the Jaredite people were destroyed. The Jaredites as a nation, however, ceased to exist. Also, the Book of Mormon contains several examples of Jaredite names among the Nephites which indicates ongoing contact. (For more information on this topic, see Simmons 1986:100-103.) The pattern emerging from Mesoamerican linguistics concerning the Maya and the Olmec dovetails the Book of Mormon pattern. The field of Mesoamerican linguistics also helps to fill in the gap between the end of the Book of Mormon account and the beginning of written history in Mesoamerica. We can expect the same ongoing pattern of convergence in Mesoamerican linguistics as we are witnessing with Mesoamerican archaeology. REFERENCES CITED
Edmonson, M. S.
1971 The Book of Counsel: the Popol Vuh
of the Quiche Maya of Guatemala.
Middle American Research Institute, Publication 35.
Tulane University, New Orleans.
Campbell, L., and T. Kaufman
1976 A Linguistic Look at the Olmecs.
American Antiquity 41:80-89.
1985 Mayan Linguistics: Where Are We Now?
Annual Review of Anthropology14:187-198.
Kaufman, T.
1974 Meso-American Indian Languages. In Encyclopaedia Britannica
vol. 22. 15th ed. Edited by Philip W. Goetz, pp. 788-792.
Encyclopaedia Britannica, Chicago.
1976 Archaeological and Linguistic Correlations in
Mayaland and Associated Area of Meso-America.
World Archaeology 8:101-118.
Simmons, Verneil
1986 Peoples, Places and Prophecies. 3rd ed.
Zarahemla Research Foundation, Independence, Missouri.
This article taken from Recent Book of Mormon Developments vol. 2 p.133-136

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White Indians In America?

White Indians In America?
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White Skinned Indians Part 2

White Skinned Indians Part 2

White versus Dark Skinned Indians Part 3

White versus Dark Skinned Indians Part 3
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NO CAUCASIANS IN ANCIENT SOUTH/CENTRAL AMERICA? HOW ABOUT A BEARDED GOD CARVED IN STONE?

NO CAUCASIANS IN ANCIENT SOUTH/CENTRAL AMERICA? HOW ABOUT A BEARDED GOD CARVED IN STONE?
Bearded god carved in stone, found in the 24 square mile ruins of Monte Alban in Southern Mexico. Note the figure seems to be in prayer.

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NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAYAN MURALS OF DAILY LIFE DEPICT WHITE AND DARK SKINNED PEOPLE.
Mural clearly depicts people of different skin colors living together, as Book of Mormon claims. National Geographic does not comment upon the skin color, but does tell us where mural came from. To read more click photo!

Monte Alban Mexico

Monte Alban Mexico
Egyption Coptic Cross. Southern Mexico

JESUS CHRIST IN AMERICA BEFORE HERNADO CORTEZ OR CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS?

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Wheels of Ancient America
A 2000-year old pre-Columbian wheeled artifact displayed at the Museum of Pre-Columbian Art in Santiago, Chile.

Wheels of the Book of Mormon

Wheels of the Book of Mormon
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Search All Things, Prove All Things True.

Dear reader. To read text articals pertaining Book of Mormon archaeology, scroll half way down.

If the Book of Mormon truly is an ancient history of America, we can search the Book of Mormon, then search archaeology to discover if the Book of Mormon is accurate. 1 Thessalonian's 5:21 states" Prove all things; hold fast that which is good". Only a fool does not test his or her Christian belief to see if it withstands scrutiny and " tough well reasoned questioning". He or she who does not test or question everything in life, religion or career has missed the boat, and the very meaning of life. Which is to find the better way spiritually and temporally, holding fast to that which is good.

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JOSEPH SMITH FOUGHT POLYGAMY

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Latter Day Saint's everywhere need not hang their heads when questioned about Joseph Smith's teaching and practice of polygamy. IT NEVER HAPPENED! Read the legal and historical evidences how men closest the prophet lied in order to justify Utah Mormon Polygamy. Click picture link to read more and decide for yourself if this book will fit your library.

THE BIBLICAL CHRIST CARRYING A SHEPHERDS STAFF

THE BIBLICAL CHRIST CARRYING A SHEPHERDS STAFF
In the Book of Mormon, 3 Nephi testifies Christ came to America. Christ, in Gospel of Luke is asked a question by the Apostle Peter most people miss. Peter ask Christ who He was, Christ's reply was, who do YOU/THEY say that I am. Luke 9:20. Native Americans record a white god who walked among them. When asked who He was, His reply was to ask, WHO DO YOU SAY THAT I AM? In ( 1964 ) Pierre Honore wrote a book who's title speaks for it'self. In Quest of the Fair God Pierre Honore illustrates a white God among the Native America, who was named many different names where ever He went. Mr. Honore says, " The legend of a particular white God has survived to our day from all ancient civilizations of Central and South America. The Toltecs and Aztecs of Mexico called Him Quetzalcoatl, the Incas called Him Viracocha To the Maya he was called Kulkulcan who brought them all their laws, and also their script, and was worshiped like a God by the entire people. To the Chibchas, he was Bochica, the white mantle of light. To the Aymara of Peru he was Hyustus, and to this day they will tell you he was fair and had blue eyes. Everywhere in the Indian states of Central and South America the legend of the White God is known, and always ends in the same way. The White God left his people with a solemn promise that he would one day come back."

A Hebrew People In America?

Can there be Hebrews in America? What does the Bible say?



Matthew 15:24



But He ( Jesus ) answered them and said, I am not sent but unto the LOST SHEEP of the house of the house of Israel



Jesus told us He must minister to Israelites " other sheep I have not of this fold then also must I bring ", ( John 10:16 KJV ).



Ezekiel 34:6;11;12-13 declares:



6My sheep wandered through all the mountains, and upon every high hill: yea, my flock was scattered upon all the face of the earth, and none did search or seek after them.



11For thus saith the Lord GOD; Behold, I, even I, will both search my sheep, and seek them out.



12As a shepherd seeketh out his flock in the day** that he is among his sheep that are scattered; so will I seek out my sheep, and will deliver them out of all places where they have been scattered in the cloudy and dark day.



** ( in the day means during Christ earthly ministry 2000 years ago )



13And I will bring them out from the people, and gather them from the countries, and will bring them to their own land, and feed them upon the mountains of Israel by the rivers, and in all the inhabited places of the country.



For the Book of Mormon to be a valid history of an ancient people long dead, there must be Biblical evidence such a people exist. The words of Christ and Ezekiel confirm such a people are scattered world wide.

TEMPLE OF THE BEARDED WHITE GOD

TEMPLE OF THE BEARDED WHITE GOD
Picture taken from a wall carving from this temple in Chichen Itza, in the Yucatan peninsula. How could the natives know of a " Bearded White God " if they had never seen one?

JESUS CAME ONLY TO ONE PEOPLE

But he answered and said, I am not sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel. Matthew 15:24


READ HOW UTAH LDS CHURCH COULD NOT PROVE JOSEPH SMITH A POLYGAMIST IN U.S. COURTS.

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Salt Lake Utah based Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints claim Joseph Smith gave revelation and taught polygamy as God's law for the church. Read how courts of the United States and U.S. Congressional investigation ( Reed Smoot Hearings ) contradict the Utah LDS Church. Click photo link to read details.

Did Jesus Say Anything About Coming To The People On This Continent?


Jesus said: "I'm not sent but to the lost sheep of the house of Israel". ( Mathew 15:24 )

JOSEPH SMITH AND THE GOLD PLATES A FABLE?

JOSEPH SMITH AND THE GOLD PLATES A FABLE?
The BBC World News " gold book discovery " and other sources confirm Joseph Smith did not lie. History since 1830 proves the Book of Mormon record coming with Lehi from Jerusalem could well have been brass, that Joseph Smith could easily have translated the Book of Mormon from gold plates.

Old Negev Alphabet With Corresponding Hebrew Words

Old Negev Alphabet With Corresponding Hebrew Words
Old Negeve Alphabet Translation Sheet

Book of Mormon Evidense? Red Bird Monogram First Century

Book of Mormon Evidense? Red Bird Monogram First Century
"Jesus Christ Son of the Father"

Book of Mormon Claims and the Red Bird Stone

Book of Mormon Claims and the Red Bird Stone
An Ogam rebus in the Gaelic language it means " The Right Hand of God "

Can Book of Mormon be a true ancient record? Los Lunas New Mexico Ten Commandment Stone

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Los Lunas Decologue Stone

Medicine Wheel Sedona Arizona

Medicine Wheel Sedona Arizona
Todays modern Churches display what we day would call a Roman Solar Cross. Ironically, the Native American already possesed such a cross long before the White Man came to America.

The Darius Plates

The Darius Plates
Keith Garner of Menlo Park, California, holding one of two gold tablets excavated from the foundation walls of the Audience Hall ( the Apadana ) of the palace of King Darius the great King of Persia ( 521- 486 B.C. ).

The Darrius Plates

The Darrius Plates
Critics say Joseph Smith was a fool to claim he translated the Book of Mormon from gold plates. Discovery of the Darius Plates show ancient man indeed did write upon metal plates. Archaeology has proven the brass plate very well could have come from the far east as the Book of Mormon claims in 1st Nephi in Book of Mormon.