Saturday, May 7, 2011

Book of Mormon Iron Mines Discovered!

Book of Mormon Iron Mines Discovered!

Many have doubted the Book of Mormon as an historical account because it mentions ancient America's inhabitants having wrought implements of iron. Critics have often used the lack of ancient iron artifacts in Native America as proof the Book of Mormon was a hoax. Until Purdue University and ( National Geographic Feb 11th 2008 ) reported the discovery of a 2000 year old Peruvian iron mine. 


The 5 Books In the Book of Mormon Making Claims of Iron
In Ancient America:

2 Nephi 4:21 And I did teach my people that they should build buildings, And that they should work in all manner of wood, and of iron and of copper, and of brass and of steel, and of gold and of silver, and of precious ores which were in great abundance.

Critics of the Book of Mormon will staunchly declare the ancient American Indians did not have steal or iron.
Yet they cannot explain how the Mayan Indian built fantastic squared stone structures. It takes steel or iron to square a stone.



Who carved the Temple of the Cross Tablet? A Mayan with a super hardened finger nail and wood chisel?
Or a Mayan with the finest set of iron stone carving chisels money could by around 690 A.D.? 


Jarom 1:19 And we multiplied exceedingly and spread upon the face of the land, And became exceeding rich in gold and in silver, and in precious things, and in fine workmanship of wood, in buildings and in machinery, and also in iron and copper and brass and steel, Making all manner of tools of every kind to till the ground, And weapons of war-
If the Ancient American Indian didn't have iron or steel, how did they do such intricately carved stone sarcophagus lids? When one bothers to think about the issue, it become very obvious the ancient Book of Mormon peoples had steel and iron, yes even Iron mines.



Mosiah 7:6 And he laid a tax of one fifth part of all they possessed: A fifth part of their gold and of their silver, And a fifth part of their ziff and of their copper and of their brass and their iron, And a fifth part of their fatlings, And also a fifth part of all their grain;

Can you imagine building this structure without the aid of steel or Iron?
Mosiah 7:11 And it came to pass that King Noah built many elegant and spacious buildings, And he ornamented them with fine work of wood, And of all manner of precious things- of gold and of silver, and of iron and of brass, and of ziff and of copper;

What ever the Mayan Indians did not have, Iron and steel was not one of those
things. Without iron, Book of Mormon peoples could not have built stone structures which scientists and archaeologists today freely admit rival and even surpass
Egypt's great pyramids.


Ether 4:71 And they did work in all manner of ore, And they did make gold and silver and iron and brass and all manner of metals; And they did dig it out of the earth; Wherefore, they did cast up mighty heaps of earth for to get ore of gold and of silver and of iron and of copper;
Now The Evidence Headlines:

Archaeologist 'strikes gold' with 

finds of 

ancient Nasca iron ore mine in Peru

WEST LAFAYETTE, Ind. - 
Kevin J. Vaughn Download photo caption below
A Purdue University archaeologist discovered an intact ancient iron ore mine in South America that shows how civilizations before the Inca Empire were mining this valuable ore.
"Archaeologists know people in the Old and New worlds have mined minerals for thousands and thousands of years," said Kevin J. Vaughn, an assistant professor of anthropology who studies the Nasca civilization, which existed from A.D. 1 to A.D. 750. "Iron mining in the Old World, specifically in Africa, goes back 40,000 years. And we know the ancient people in Mexico, Central America and North America were mining for various materials. There isn't much evidence for these types of mines.
"What we found is the only hematite mine, a type of iron also known as ochre, recorded in South America prior to the Spanish conquest. 

This discovery demonstrates that iron ores were important to ancient Andean civilizations."
In 2004 and 2005, Vaughn and his team excavated Mina Primavera, which is located in the Ingenio Valley of the Andes Mountains in southern Peru. The research team performed field checks and collected some samples in 2006 and 2007. The findings of the excavation are published in December's Journal of the Minerals, Metals & Materials Society.

The researchers determined that the mine is a human-made cave that was first created around 2,000 years ago. An estimated 3,710 metric tons was extracted from the mine during more than 1,400 years of use. The mine, which is nearly 700 cubic meters, is in a cliffside facing a modern ochre mine.
Vaughn hypothesizes that the Nasca people used the red-pigmented mineral primarily for ceramic paints, but they also could have used it as body paint, to paint textiles and even to paint adobe walls. The Nasca civilization is known for hundreds of drawings in the Nasca Desert, which are known as the Nasca-Lines and can only be seen from the air, and for an aqueduct system that is still used today.
Vaughn and his team discovered a number of artifacts in the mine, including corncobs, stone tools, and pieces of textiles and pottery. The age of the items was determined by radiocarbon dating, a process that determines age based on the decay of naturally occurring elements.

"Archaeologists have a very good sequence of pottery from this region, so I can look at most pots from this region and determine a date within a century that is based on stylistic changes of the pottery," Vaughn said. "Even before the dating, we knew this was an ancient mine because of the ceramic pieces. These very small fragments, about the size of a penny, had distinct designs on them that are characteristic of the early Nasca civilization."
The artifacts from the excavation are being curated by the Instituto Nacional de Cultura of Peru at its museum in Ica, Peru.

Now that there is archaeological evidence that ancient cultures in the Andes were mining iron ore, it is important to give credit to New World civilizations, Vaughn said.
"Even though ancient Andean people smelted some metals, such as copper, they never smelted iron like they did in the Old World," he said. "Metals were used for a variety of tools in the Old World, such as weapons, while in the Americas, metals were used as prestige goods for the wealthy elite."
This excavation was part of Vaughn's Early Nasca Craft Economy Project, a multiyear National Science Foundation-funded study of Nasca ceramic production and distribution. The project's goal is to better understand the origins of inequality and political economy in this ancient culture.
Vaughn says material scientists and engineers, as well as mineralogists, will be interested in this discovery.

"This study of mining is a great example of how archaeology bridges the social and physical sciences," he said.

The National Science Foundation and the Heinz Foundation funded the Mina Primavera excavation. Next, Vaughn will be excavating a habitation site that has a 4,000-year occupation in hopes of understanding the long-term settlement history of the region.
"I hope to continue surveying for mines and mining-related sites in the region, and hopefully undertake additional excavations at the mine," he said.

Writer: Amy Patterson Neubert, (765) 494-9723,apatterson@purdue.edu
Source: Kevin J. Vaughn, (765) 494-4700,kjvaughn@purdue.edu
Purdue News Service: (765) 494-2096;purduenews@purdue.edu

PHOTO CAPTION:
Kevin J. Vaughn, a Purdue assistant professor of anthropology, holds a pottery fragment he discovered at an excavation site in Nasca, Peru. The piece of pottery is from about the 5th century A.D., which is the same time period as other artifacts he uncovered at Mina Primavera. Vaughn hypothesizes the mine was the source of some of the iron ore pigments used to produce the vibrant colors as seen on this pottery.  (Purdue News Service photo/David Umberger)
A publication-quality photo is available athttp://news.uns.purdue.edu/images/+2008/vaughn-peru.jpg


National Geographic Publishes In 

Favor of Book of Mormon claims:



Ancient Iron Ore Mine 

Discovered in Peruvian Andes

Kelly Hearn in Buenos Aires, Argentina
for National Geographic News
February 11, 2008
A 2,000-year-old mine has been discovered high in mountains in Peru. The find offers proof that an ancient people in the Andes mined hematite iron ore centuries before the Inca Empire, archaeologists say.
The mine was used to tap a vein of hematite, or ochre—the first such mine found in South America that predates the arrival of Spanish conquistadors, experts note.
The discovery, reported by a U.S. archaeologist, was made in southern Peru in the region once inhabited by the ancient Nasca (often spelled "Nazca") culture.
The rare find adds to a slim body of evidence about New World mining practices, said Kevin J. Vaughn, an anthropologist at Purdue University who reported the find.
"Because mining is an extractive industry, it tends to destroy archaeological evidence," he said.
"There is very little evidence of this type of mine. It demonstrates that iron ores were important to ancient Andean civilizations."

The discovery, reported by a U.S. archaeologist, was made in southern Peru in the region once inhabited by the ancient Nasca (often spelled "Nazca") culture.
The rare find adds to a slim body of evidence about New World mining practices, said Kevin J. Vaughn, an anthropologist at Purdue University who reported the find.
"Because mining is an extractive industry, it tends to destroy archaeological evidence," he said.
"There is very little evidence of this type of mine. It demonstrates that iron ores were important to ancient Andean civilizations."
The discovery sheds light specifically on how hematite was used by the Nasca, who flourished along the Pacific coast from about 100 B.C. to around A.D. 600.
The culture is known for etching giant drawings in the Nasca desert, as well as making textiles, designing irrigation systems, and creating colorful pottery adorned with images of plants, animals, and complex religious symbols.
Some evidence suggests that ancient Andeans smelted metals like copper to make "prestige goods" for the elite classes, but this was not the case for the ochre mined at the newfound site, Vaughn explained.
"Our hypothesis is that the Nasca people used the red-pigmented mineral primarily for ceramic paints," Vaughn said.
"Nasca artisans could have also used the hematite to paint textiles or adobe walls, or even use it as body paint."
Vaughn's team is currently comparing the hematite from the mine to hematite pigment found on pottery samples, he added.
Its shaft is a hand-dug cave covering an area of some 700 cubic meters (24,720 cubic feet).
The mine produced some 3,710 metric tons (8,179,066 pounds) of ore over about 1,400 years of use, according to the researchers.
The site also rendered artifacts—such as beads, corncobs, stone tools, pottery shards, and textiles—that have allowed Vaughn's team link the mine to the Nasca.
Most of the artifacts date to the first few centuries A.D.
A paper describing the excavation appeared in the Journal of the Minerals, Metals & Materials Society.
Donald Proulx, emeritus professor of anthropology at the University of Massachusetts, called the study "a major step forward in our understanding of the nature of Nasca ceramic production.
"Vaughn and his colleagues are really the first to systematically look for the sources of clay and pigments used for Nasca pottery," he said.
"The discovery of the mine is extremely important, not only for showing us one of the major sources for the pigments, but also for demonstrating from the associated artifacts that the miners were members of the Nasca culture."




The discovery sheds light specifically on how hematite was used by the Nasca, who flourished along the Pacific coast from about 100 B.C. to around A.D. 600.
The culture is known for etching giant drawings in the Nasca desert, as well as making textiles, designing irrigation systems, and creating colorful pottery adorned with images of plants, animals, and complex religious symbols.
Some evidence suggests that ancient Andeans smelted metals like copper to make "prestige goods" for the elite classes, but this was not the case for the ochre mined at the newfound site, Vaughn explained.
"Our hypothesis is that the Nasca people used the red-pigmented mineral primarily for ceramic paints," Vaughn said.
"Nasca artisans could have also used the hematite to paint textiles or adobe walls, or even use it as body paint."
Vaughn's team is currently comparing the hematite from the mine to hematite pigment found on pottery samples, he added.

Book of Mormon Hammers Found In Oldest American Iron Mine
7 December 2010
Edited from AFP, The Sydney Morning Herald (6 December 2011)


Oldest mine of the Americas found in Chile

Archaeologists have discovered a 12,000-year-old iron oxide mine in northern Chile, making it the oldest mine yet discovered in all the Americas. The iron oxide mined by the Huentelauquen Indians was used as a pigment in dying cloth and in religious rituals, revealing an unexpected sophistication in what was previously considered a primitive group of people, University of Chile researcher Diego Salazar said.

The ancient mine was discovered near the town of Taltal, in the Antofagasta region, 1,100km north of Santiago, in October 2008, but its antiquity was not determined until tests were conducted this year in US and Polish laboratories. Named 'San Ramon 15', the mine was exploited heavily from 10,000 to 2,000 BCE. It yielded a total of 2,000 tonnes of pigment extracted from 700 cubic metres of rock.

Experts also found a treasure trove of stone and conch mining tools in the area. "We've found more than 1,000 hammers ... but considering the amount of material we have yet to sift through, the real number could rise to several thousands," said archaeologist Hernan Salinas. Before this find, the oldest mine in the Americas was 2,500 years old and located in the USA. The world's most ancient mine is in South Africa and is about 40,000 years old.









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Don't Trust The World Systems Experts Over Your Own Observations

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White Indians In America?

White Indians In America?
Book of Mormon Speaks of the Nephites " White Indians " and Lamanites " Dark Skinned Indians " living in America. South American Murals give evidence the Book of Mormon is an ancient record.

White Skinned Indians Part 2

White Skinned Indians Part 2

White versus Dark Skinned Indians Part 3

White versus Dark Skinned Indians Part 3
The truth cannot be ignored. The Book of Mormon again speaks truly of a white skinned Indian.

NO CAUCASIANS IN ANCIENT SOUTH/CENTRAL AMERICA? HOW ABOUT A BEARDED GOD CARVED IN STONE?

NO CAUCASIANS IN ANCIENT SOUTH/CENTRAL AMERICA? HOW ABOUT A BEARDED GOD CARVED IN STONE?
Bearded god carved in stone, found in the 24 square mile ruins of Monte Alban in Southern Mexico. Note the figure seems to be in prayer.

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAYAN MURALS OF DAILY LIFE DEPICT WHITE AND DARK SKINNED PEOPLE.

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAYAN MURALS OF DAILY LIFE DEPICT WHITE AND DARK SKINNED PEOPLE.
Mural clearly depicts people of different skin colors living together, as Book of Mormon claims. National Geographic does not comment upon the skin color, but does tell us where mural came from. To read more click photo!

Monte Alban Mexico

Monte Alban Mexico
Egyption Coptic Cross. Southern Mexico

JESUS CHRIST IN AMERICA BEFORE HERNADO CORTEZ OR CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS?

JESUS CHRIST IN AMERICA BEFORE HERNADO CORTEZ OR CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS?
Latin style cross tombs of Mitla Mexico. Photos taken from The Cruciform Structures of Mitla and Vicinity (1909), copyright expired, public domain.

Evidence Native Americans Knew About Jesus Christ Before the Spanish Inquisition of South America.

Evidence Native Americans Knew About Jesus Christ Before the Spanish Inquisition of South America.
This Blog is about Jesus Christ. About the Book of Mormon which has been much maligned by men who never heard or saw the truth. Even by some who don't want the truth seen by you or I. We of the western world need to open our eyes. We must wake up. We must believe God is real. We must begin to realized we cannot fit God into a small little box with a pretty red bow, only to open it on Sunday so we may have our small controled dose of God. God is everywhere. Therefore His people will be everywhere. Let's find the evidence of the other places Jesus Christ visited besides Jerusalem... The above photo comes from Monte Alban Mexico. The above cross in similitude to an Egyption Coptic Cross. What connections did Egypt and ancient Mexico have?

Wheels of Ancient America

Wheels of Ancient America
A 2000-year old pre-Columbian wheeled artifact displayed at the Museum of Pre-Columbian Art in Santiago, Chile.

Wheels of the Book of Mormon

Wheels of the Book of Mormon
The Book of Mormon declares the ancient inhabitants had horse drawn chariots. Critics have scoffed, because they say no chariot with wheels have been found. The American Indian was not advanced enough they say. So why do the the children's toys in El Salvador have wheels?

Search All Things, Prove All Things True.

Dear reader. To read text articals pertaining Book of Mormon archaeology, scroll half way down.

If the Book of Mormon truly is an ancient history of America, we can search the Book of Mormon, then search archaeology to discover if the Book of Mormon is accurate. 1 Thessalonian's 5:21 states" Prove all things; hold fast that which is good". Only a fool does not test his or her Christian belief to see if it withstands scrutiny and " tough well reasoned questioning". He or she who does not test or question everything in life, religion or career has missed the boat, and the very meaning of life. Which is to find the better way spiritually and temporally, holding fast to that which is good.

The Book of Mormon In Bible Prophecy

The Book of Mormon In Bible Prophecy
The Bible has been much heralded as the inspired word of God by Christianity. But is the Book of Mormon of God? Or just a figment of Joseph Smith imagination?

JOSEPH SMITH FOUGHT POLYGAMY

JOSEPH SMITH FOUGHT POLYGAMY
Latter Day Saint's everywhere need not hang their heads when questioned about Joseph Smith's teaching and practice of polygamy. IT NEVER HAPPENED! Read the legal and historical evidences how men closest the prophet lied in order to justify Utah Mormon Polygamy. Click picture link to read more and decide for yourself if this book will fit your library.

THE BIBLICAL CHRIST CARRYING A SHEPHERDS STAFF

THE BIBLICAL CHRIST CARRYING A SHEPHERDS STAFF
In the Book of Mormon, 3 Nephi testifies Christ came to America. Christ, in Gospel of Luke is asked a question by the Apostle Peter most people miss. Peter ask Christ who He was, Christ's reply was, who do YOU/THEY say that I am. Luke 9:20. Native Americans record a white god who walked among them. When asked who He was, His reply was to ask, WHO DO YOU SAY THAT I AM? In ( 1964 ) Pierre Honore wrote a book who's title speaks for it'self. In Quest of the Fair God Pierre Honore illustrates a white God among the Native America, who was named many different names where ever He went. Mr. Honore says, " The legend of a particular white God has survived to our day from all ancient civilizations of Central and South America. The Toltecs and Aztecs of Mexico called Him Quetzalcoatl, the Incas called Him Viracocha To the Maya he was called Kulkulcan who brought them all their laws, and also their script, and was worshiped like a God by the entire people. To the Chibchas, he was Bochica, the white mantle of light. To the Aymara of Peru he was Hyustus, and to this day they will tell you he was fair and had blue eyes. Everywhere in the Indian states of Central and South America the legend of the White God is known, and always ends in the same way. The White God left his people with a solemn promise that he would one day come back."

A Hebrew People In America?

Can there be Hebrews in America? What does the Bible say?



Matthew 15:24



But He ( Jesus ) answered them and said, I am not sent but unto the LOST SHEEP of the house of the house of Israel



Jesus told us He must minister to Israelites " other sheep I have not of this fold then also must I bring ", ( John 10:16 KJV ).



Ezekiel 34:6;11;12-13 declares:



6My sheep wandered through all the mountains, and upon every high hill: yea, my flock was scattered upon all the face of the earth, and none did search or seek after them.



11For thus saith the Lord GOD; Behold, I, even I, will both search my sheep, and seek them out.



12As a shepherd seeketh out his flock in the day** that he is among his sheep that are scattered; so will I seek out my sheep, and will deliver them out of all places where they have been scattered in the cloudy and dark day.



** ( in the day means during Christ earthly ministry 2000 years ago )



13And I will bring them out from the people, and gather them from the countries, and will bring them to their own land, and feed them upon the mountains of Israel by the rivers, and in all the inhabited places of the country.



For the Book of Mormon to be a valid history of an ancient people long dead, there must be Biblical evidence such a people exist. The words of Christ and Ezekiel confirm such a people are scattered world wide.

TEMPLE OF THE BEARDED WHITE GOD

TEMPLE OF THE BEARDED WHITE GOD
Picture taken from a wall carving from this temple in Chichen Itza, in the Yucatan peninsula. How could the natives know of a " Bearded White God " if they had never seen one?

JESUS CAME ONLY TO ONE PEOPLE

But he answered and said, I am not sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel. Matthew 15:24


READ HOW UTAH LDS CHURCH COULD NOT PROVE JOSEPH SMITH A POLYGAMIST IN U.S. COURTS.

READ HOW UTAH LDS CHURCH COULD NOT PROVE JOSEPH SMITH A POLYGAMIST IN U.S. COURTS.
Salt Lake Utah based Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints claim Joseph Smith gave revelation and taught polygamy as God's law for the church. Read how courts of the United States and U.S. Congressional investigation ( Reed Smoot Hearings ) contradict the Utah LDS Church. Click photo link to read details.

Did Jesus Say Anything About Coming To The People On This Continent?


Jesus said: "I'm not sent but to the lost sheep of the house of Israel". ( Mathew 15:24 )

JOSEPH SMITH AND THE GOLD PLATES A FABLE?

JOSEPH SMITH AND THE GOLD PLATES A FABLE?
The BBC World News " gold book discovery " and other sources confirm Joseph Smith did not lie. History since 1830 proves the Book of Mormon record coming with Lehi from Jerusalem could well have been brass, that Joseph Smith could easily have translated the Book of Mormon from gold plates.

Old Negev Alphabet With Corresponding Hebrew Words

Old Negev Alphabet With Corresponding Hebrew Words
Old Negeve Alphabet Translation Sheet

Book of Mormon Evidense? Red Bird Monogram First Century

Book of Mormon Evidense? Red Bird Monogram First Century
"Jesus Christ Son of the Father"

Book of Mormon Claims and the Red Bird Stone

Book of Mormon Claims and the Red Bird Stone
An Ogam rebus in the Gaelic language it means " The Right Hand of God "

Can Book of Mormon be a true ancient record? Los Lunas New Mexico Ten Commandment Stone

Can Book of Mormon be a true ancient record? Los Lunas New Mexico Ten Commandment Stone
Los Lunas Decologue Stone

Medicine Wheel Sedona Arizona

Medicine Wheel Sedona Arizona
Todays modern Churches display what we day would call a Roman Solar Cross. Ironically, the Native American already possesed such a cross long before the White Man came to America.

The Darius Plates

The Darius Plates
Keith Garner of Menlo Park, California, holding one of two gold tablets excavated from the foundation walls of the Audience Hall ( the Apadana ) of the palace of King Darius the great King of Persia ( 521- 486 B.C. ).

The Darrius Plates

The Darrius Plates
Critics say Joseph Smith was a fool to claim he translated the Book of Mormon from gold plates. Discovery of the Darius Plates show ancient man indeed did write upon metal plates. Archaeology has proven the brass plate very well could have come from the far east as the Book of Mormon claims in 1st Nephi in Book of Mormon.