Friday, January 2, 2009

National Geographic's Ancient Horses In the Americas

Remains Show Ancient Horses Were Hunted for Their Meat

Hillary Mayellfor National Geographic News
May 11, 2001

Scientists have found the first definitive proof that early humans in North America hunted horses for their meat.

Prehistoric horses, which were much smaller than today's horses, standing about 4.5 feet (1.5 meters) high at the shoulder, became extinct about 10,000 years ago. Scientists considered it likely that hunting by humans was a factor in their extinction, but until now there was no hard proof.

The first conclusive evidence comes from spearheads tainted with the residue of horse protein. They were found along with other animal remains on the river plain of St. Mary's Reservoir in southern Alberta, Canada.

"In the past, we could really only attribute the demise of these ancient horses to climate and environmental changes," said Brian Kooyman, an archaeologist at the University of Calgary and the lead scientist at the dig.

"There has been suggestive evidence at other sites—Lubbock Lake in Texas, for instance—that early peoples were utilizing horses," he said. "But this discovery raises the very real possibility that overhunting by the Clovis people played a significant role in the extinction."
European explorers reintroduced horses to the New World several thousand years after the ancient ones died out.

Prehistoric Detective Work

The floor of the reservoir is covered with animal tracks of mammals, including wooly mammoths, camels, giant bison and helmeted musk oxen. "Clovis points," the spearheads associated with some of the first humans to reach the continent, found in the river plain have been dated to between 11,000 to 11,300 years old.

"The area where the remains were found is large—3 to 4 square kilometers [1 to 1.5 square miles]," Kooyman said. "We uncovered the remains of a prehistoric horse with several smashed vertebrae and bones that bore evidence of butchering, and then two of our students found several Clovis points around 550 yards (500 meters) away."

Laboratory analysis showed that the spearheads had the residue of horse protein on them; they apparently had been thrust into the horse.
"It was a near miss," Kooyman said of the discovery. "We weren't going to bother testing them [for horse protein residue]. We'd had similar findings before and the points all came back from the lab clean. But the two graduate students kept insisting we send them in, and we're glad they did."
As the ice began to retreat on the North American continent 14,000 to 12,000 years ago, humans made their way to the New World. A massive extinction of megafauna—animals weighing more than 100 pounds (45 kilograms)—occurred in North America about 10,000 years ago.
The role of humans in the extinction is the subject of debate among scientists.
"Retreating ice would cause changes in temperature, vegetation bands and probably a patchiness in vegetation and loss of habitat," said Paul McNeil, a Ph.D. candidate in paleontology at the
University of Calgary who has been working the site. "This would stress the animal populations, and it wouldn't take much to push them over the edge to extinction."
"Environment and climate change were definitely factors in the extinction event, but there had been numerous instances of glaciers advancing and retreating during the Pleistocene, and this is the only time we see a megafaunal extinction. The arrival of humans is the only real new factor," he said.

The lakebed where the footprints, animal skeletons and artifacts were found is usually flooded. Currently, however, the region is undergoing a drought. St. Mary's reservoir is expected to fill with water again, perhaps soon, so the scientists are working feverishly—sometimes in the midst of brutal sandstorms—to document the tracks and continue the archaeological excavations.

From a preservation standpoint, McNeil noted, the tracks are better protected under water. "One of the results of glaciations is a denuded countryside, with lots of dust and sand and silt. So when the wind blows it can be fierce enough to erode meters at a time," he said.
The researchers are excited by their discoveries at the site and how they are helping to fill in details of the past. "It's an amazing sight, like a snapshot of what life was like in the late Pleistocene, 10,000 years ago," said McNeil.

"The tracks represent living animals and a living ecosystem. In your mind you can see the animals cohabitating, gathering in the same place," he said. "We've found the only camel tracks we know of in North America—at one place you can see where five of them were walking next to each other."

Threatened by the filling of the lake, Kooyman said: "Right now we're just scrambling to do the really critical things."

Book of Mormon Elephants In America!

Joseph Smith Benjamin Franklin and National Geographic all agree!
Elephants no doubt resided in America!

Critics of the Book of Mormon, declare the Book of Mormon false because there are no living elephants in America. Foolishly the critics say there is no evidences for Elephants in America. I have decided to lay this little myth to rest... Unbeknownst toBenjamin Franklin, he has played a great part in proving the Book of Mormon spoke truly about Elephants in the Americas!

Native American Legend Last American Elephant Killed 1730?
According to American Indian legend, their last oral record of a Mastodon killing was around 1730... So Ben Franklin having found a Mastodon tooth and Book of Mormon claims of elephants could well be so!

A Science Update 7/26/2014 confirms Native American legend that man and Mastodon seemed to live together.

A National Geographic headline reads:

At a Mexican site known as the End of the World, archaeologists have unearthed a Native American first: the bones of two extinct elephant-like animals that sported four tusks apiece, surrounded by 13,400-year-old spear points.

Link to read more:

Science Daily Headline Reads:

Gone But Not Forgotten: Bring Back North American Elephants?

Paul S. Martin of the University of Arizona in speaking to Science Daily, "I want to do honor to my country by appreciating its true nature," Martin said. "We've been misled into thinking this is the home of the deer and the buffalo and the moose. That's true in historical time but in evolutionary time this land is the home of elephants, camels, horses and ground sloths."

Read More of the Science Daily Story

Artifact Spotlight: Benjamin Franklin and the Mastodon Tooth
Why the Book of Mormon Is A Historic Record

Portion of the basement in Franklin's property prior to the building's rehab in the 1960s photo courtesy Independence National Historical Park

In 1953, an electrician working in the basement of a building in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, unearthed a grey and white stone about the size of a large grapefruit. The basement was in a building that had belonged to one of the architects of American independence: Benjamin Franklin. The object was a fossilized mastodon tooth.

Ancient Mastodons and the Enlightenment

Sketch of extinct mastodon, with inset photograph of mastodon tooth found on Benjamin Franklin's property.
Drawing Sarah Jeppson (2005), photograph Peter Harholdt (2004)
The mastodon tooth, now preserved at the Independence National Historical Park, is an artifact of Franklin’s role in the social and scientific movement called the Enlightenment. Further, the tooth was a building block for the natural philosophers of the 18th and 19th century as they came to understand the process of evolution.
Ancient Elephants and 18th Century Rationalists

Benjamin Franklin as depicted in the frontispiece of: "Life of Benjamin Franklin as written by himself," edited by John Bigelow, 1875.
Franklin’s letters reveal that over his lifetime he obtained several samples of mastodon bones and teeth. He wrote to fellow scientists in the colonies and in Europe about the mysterious creature which did not live in America but whose bones could be found there. Franklin refers to these fossil fragments as being from "ancient elephants from before the flood", since the term mastodon was not in use at the time.
The Great Chain of Being
1579 drawing of the Great Chain of Being from Didacus Valades, Rhetorica ChristianaFranklin and others compared the mastodon’s features with similar fossils and living animals around the world. With this information, these natural philosophers proposed that the animal was "extinct". Identifying fossils as those of extinct animals undermined the classical and medieval concept of the universe known as 'The Great Chain of Being'. Thus, the mastodon tooth from Franklin’s property represents the scientific story of fossil mastodon bones in Franklin’s life – and Franklin’s world. This specimen represents a time when society’s basic values and beliefs were being restructured by Enlightenment ideas, and the tooth is physical evidence of Franklin’s role in transforming the prevailing view of the world. Franklin and others compared the mastodon’s features with similar fossils and living animals around the world. With this information, these natural philosophers proposed that the animal was "extinct". Identifying fossils as those of extinct animals undermined the classical and medieval concept of the universe known as 'The Great Chain of Being'. Thus, the mastodon tooth from Franklin’s property represents the scientific story of fossil mastodon bones in Franklin’s life – and Franklin’s world. This specimen represents a time when society’s basic values and beliefs were being restructured by Enlightenment ideas, and the tooth is physical evidence of Franklin’s role in transforming the prevailing view of the world.
Natural History and American Independence
Collage of the Signers of the American Declaration of Independence and a Mastodon Skeleton
The mastodon tooth is likewise a window into the social and political consequences being brought about by this evolving understanding of natural history. Recent scholarship by Paul Semonin reveals that during the 18th century the mastodon became a symbol of the new nation's spirit when patriotism and North American prehistoric nature became intertwined. The presumed ferocity of the beast led to its becoming an important symbol of national identity. This creature supported the idea of a grand history for the new American continent, while its extinction foreshadowed the destiny of American conquest over untamed wilderness.

Benjamin Franklin's 300th Birthday

Franklin Court, current condition and the location of the Independence National Historical Park
The mastodon tooth from Benjamin Franklin’s property is one of many cultural resources cared for by the Independence National Historical Park. Until 2008, Franklin’s mastodon tooth will be traveling the world as part of an exhibit created for the Benjamin Franklin Tercentenary (the 300th anniversary of Franklin's birth). This artifact spotlight was submitted by Patrice L. Jeppson -- the historical archaeology consultant to the Benjamin Franklin Tercentenary Consortium.

National Geographic Story

Oldest Skeleton in Americas Found in Underwater Cave?
Eliza Barclayfor National Geographic News
September 3, 2008

Blogger Note! You'll have to do some skimmming, Elephants were not the only remains found! Enjoy!
James Brian Marshall

Deep inside an underwater cave in Mexico, archaeologists may have discovered the oldest human skeleton ever found in the Americas.

Dubbed Eva de Naharon, or Eve of Naharon, the female skeleton has been dated at 13,600 years old. If that age is accurate, the skeleton—along with three others found in underwater caves along the Caribbean coast of the Yucatán Peninsula—could provide new clues to how the Americas were first populated.

The Genographic Project
Clovis People Not First Americans, Study Shows (February 23, 2007)
Fossil Feces Is Earliest Evidence of N. America Humans (April 3, 2008)

The remains have been excavated over the past four years near the town of Tulum, about 80 miles southwest of Cancún, by a team of scientists led by Arturo González, director of the Desert Museum in Saltillo, Mexico (see map of Mexico).

"We don't now how [the people whose remains were found in the caves] arrived and whether they came from the Atlantic, the jungle, or inside the continent," González said.

"But we believe these finds are the oldest yet to be found in the Americas and may influence our theories of how the first people arrived."

In addition to possibly altering the time line of human settlement in the Americas, the remains may cause experts to rethink where the first Americans came from, González added.

Clues from the skeletons' skulls hint that the people may not be of northern Asian descent, which would contradict the dominant theory of New World settlement. That theory holds that ancient humans first came to North America from northern Asia via a now submerged land bridge across the Bering Sea (see an interactive map of ancient human migration).

"The shape of the skulls has led us to believe that Eva and the others have more of an affinity with people from South Asia than North Asia," González explained.

Concepción Jiménez, director of physical anthropology at Mexico's National Institute of Anthropology and History, has viewed the finds and says they may be Mexico's oldest and most important human remains to date. "Eva de Naharon has the Paleo-Indian characteristics that make the date seem very plausible," Jiménez said.

Ancient Floods, Giant Animals

The three other skeletons excavated in the caves have been given a date range of 11,000 to 14,000 years ago, based on radiocarbon dating. Radiocarbon dating measures the age of organic materials based on their content of the radioactive isotope carbon 14.  According to archaeologist David Anderson of the University of Tennessee, however, minerals in seawater can sometimes alter the carbon 14 content of bones, resulting in inaccurate radiocarbon dating results.

The remains were found some 50 feet (15 meters) below sea level in the caves off Tulum. But at the time Eve of Naharon is believed to have lived there, sea levels were 200 feet (60 meters) lower, and the Yucatán Peninsula was a wide, dry prairie.
The polar ice caps melted dramatically 8,000 to 9,000 years ago, causing sea levels to rise hundreds of feet and submerging the burial grounds of the skeletons. Stalactites and stalagmites then grew around the remains, preventing them from being washed out to sea.
González has also found remains of other ancient elephants, giant sloths, and fauna in the caves.
(Learn more about how caves form.)

Human Migration Theories

If González's finds do stand up to scientific scrutiny, they will raise many interesting new questions about how the Americas were first peopled.Many researchers once believed humans entered the New World from Asia as a single group crossing over the Bering Land Bridge no earlier than 13,500 years ago. But that theory is lately being debunked.
Remains found in Monte Verde, Chile, in 1997, for example, point to the presence of people in the Americas at least 12,500 years ago, long before migration would have been possible through the ice-covered Arctic reaches of North America.

(Related: "Clovis People Not First Americans, Study Shows" [February 23, 2007].)

Confirmation of Eve of Naharon's age could further revolutionize the thinking about the settlement of the Americas.

This September, González will begin excavating the fourth skeleton, known as Chan hol, which he says could be even older than Eve. The Chan hol remains include more than ten teeth, which will allow researchers to date the specimen and gather information about Chan hol's diet.  "When we learn more about the [Mexican finds] we'll be able to better evaluate them," said Carlos Lorenzo, a researcher at the Universitat Rovira i Virgili in Tarragona, Spain, an expert on the subject who was not involved in the current study. "But in any case, if it's confirmed that Eva de Naharon is 13,000 years old, it will be a fantastic and extraordinary finding for understanding the first settlers of America."

González said he and his team hope to publish the full results of their analysis after the excavation of the fourth skeleton. "We're not yet in the phase of research of determining how they arrived," he said. "But when we have more evidence we may be able to determine that."

Blogger Note: For you skeptics out there, heres the link! Best Regards!

Parting Shot.
Proof American Museums Have American Elephants Within Them.

The Mt. Blanco Mastadon

The second display room is dominated by a huge skeleton of the Burning Tree Mastodon excavated from Ohio.This room also contains the largest mold ever of the Waco Mammoth Death Site. This mastodon is the one that was found with living bacteria still in its intestines.
Our museum maintains that this is evidence that this animal couldn’t be 11,000 years old.

Museum Owner
Joe Taylor and grandson, Andrew

with human giant display.

Joe Taylor is the owner and curator of the Mt. Blanco Fossil Museum and associated companies. He was born and raised near Crosbyton at the Mt. Blanco community. As a young man he left the area for art school and a career in commerical illustration and advertising design in New York City and Los Angeles. During this time he volunteered at the La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, California where the saber tooth cat skull which we reproduce is from. His interest was sparked by the rich local fossil deposits and a desire to find out the truth about fossils. The results of this interest are seen in the museum. Mr. Taylor is one of the nation’s foremost fossil restorationists and his work is sought out by individuals, museums and other institutions in this country and abroad.

Don't Trust The World Systems Experts Over Your Own Observations

"They have cradled you in custom. They have primed you with their teaching. They have soaked you with convention through and through. They have put you in a showcase. You're a credit to their teaching. But don't you hear the truth? It's calling you."

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White Indians In America?

White Indians In America?
Book of Mormon Speaks of the Nephites " White Indians " and Lamanites " Dark Skinned Indians " living in America. South American Murals give evidence the Book of Mormon is an ancient record.

White Skinned Indians Part 2

White Skinned Indians Part 2

White versus Dark Skinned Indians Part 3

White versus Dark Skinned Indians Part 3
The truth cannot be ignored. The Book of Mormon again speaks truly of a white skinned Indian.


Bearded god carved in stone, found in the 24 square mile ruins of Monte Alban in Southern Mexico. Note the figure seems to be in prayer.


Mural clearly depicts people of different skin colors living together, as Book of Mormon claims. National Geographic does not comment upon the skin color, but does tell us where mural came from. To read more click photo!

Monte Alban Mexico

Monte Alban Mexico
Egyption Coptic Cross. Southern Mexico


Latin style cross tombs of Mitla Mexico. Photos taken from The Cruciform Structures of Mitla and Vicinity (1909), copyright expired, public domain.

Evidence Native Americans Knew About Jesus Christ Before the Spanish Inquisition of South America.

Evidence Native Americans Knew About Jesus Christ Before the Spanish Inquisition of South America.
This Blog is about Jesus Christ. About the Book of Mormon which has been much maligned by men who never heard or saw the truth. Even by some who don't want the truth seen by you or I. We of the western world need to open our eyes. We must wake up. We must believe God is real. We must begin to realized we cannot fit God into a small little box with a pretty red bow, only to open it on Sunday so we may have our small controled dose of God. God is everywhere. Therefore His people will be everywhere. Let's find the evidence of the other places Jesus Christ visited besides Jerusalem... The above photo comes from Monte Alban Mexico. The above cross in similitude to an Egyption Coptic Cross. What connections did Egypt and ancient Mexico have?

Wheels of Ancient America

Wheels of Ancient America
A 2000-year old pre-Columbian wheeled artifact displayed at the Museum of Pre-Columbian Art in Santiago, Chile.

Wheels of the Book of Mormon

Wheels of the Book of Mormon
The Book of Mormon declares the ancient inhabitants had horse drawn chariots. Critics have scoffed, because they say no chariot with wheels have been found. The American Indian was not advanced enough they say. So why do the the children's toys in El Salvador have wheels?

Search All Things, Prove All Things True.

Dear reader. To read text articals pertaining Book of Mormon archaeology, scroll half way down.

If the Book of Mormon truly is an ancient history of America, we can search the Book of Mormon, then search archaeology to discover if the Book of Mormon is accurate. 1 Thessalonian's 5:21 states" Prove all things; hold fast that which is good". Only a fool does not test his or her Christian belief to see if it withstands scrutiny and " tough well reasoned questioning". He or she who does not test or question everything in life, religion or career has missed the boat, and the very meaning of life. Which is to find the better way spiritually and temporally, holding fast to that which is good.

The Book of Mormon In Bible Prophecy

The Book of Mormon In Bible Prophecy
The Bible has been much heralded as the inspired word of God by Christianity. But is the Book of Mormon of God? Or just a figment of Joseph Smith imagination?


Latter Day Saint's everywhere need not hang their heads when questioned about Joseph Smith's teaching and practice of polygamy. IT NEVER HAPPENED! Read the legal and historical evidences how men closest the prophet lied in order to justify Utah Mormon Polygamy. Click picture link to read more and decide for yourself if this book will fit your library.


In the Book of Mormon, 3 Nephi testifies Christ came to America. Christ, in Gospel of Luke is asked a question by the Apostle Peter most people miss. Peter ask Christ who He was, Christ's reply was, who do YOU/THEY say that I am. Luke 9:20. Native Americans record a white god who walked among them. When asked who He was, His reply was to ask, WHO DO YOU SAY THAT I AM? In ( 1964 ) Pierre Honore wrote a book who's title speaks for it'self. In Quest of the Fair God Pierre Honore illustrates a white God among the Native America, who was named many different names where ever He went. Mr. Honore says, " The legend of a particular white God has survived to our day from all ancient civilizations of Central and South America. The Toltecs and Aztecs of Mexico called Him Quetzalcoatl, the Incas called Him Viracocha To the Maya he was called Kulkulcan who brought them all their laws, and also their script, and was worshiped like a God by the entire people. To the Chibchas, he was Bochica, the white mantle of light. To the Aymara of Peru he was Hyustus, and to this day they will tell you he was fair and had blue eyes. Everywhere in the Indian states of Central and South America the legend of the White God is known, and always ends in the same way. The White God left his people with a solemn promise that he would one day come back."

A Hebrew People In America?

Can there be Hebrews in America? What does the Bible say?

Matthew 15:24

But He ( Jesus ) answered them and said, I am not sent but unto the LOST SHEEP of the house of the house of Israel

Jesus told us He must minister to Israelites " other sheep I have not of this fold then also must I bring ", ( John 10:16 KJV ).

Ezekiel 34:6;11;12-13 declares:

6My sheep wandered through all the mountains, and upon every high hill: yea, my flock was scattered upon all the face of the earth, and none did search or seek after them.

11For thus saith the Lord GOD; Behold, I, even I, will both search my sheep, and seek them out.

12As a shepherd seeketh out his flock in the day** that he is among his sheep that are scattered; so will I seek out my sheep, and will deliver them out of all places where they have been scattered in the cloudy and dark day.

** ( in the day means during Christ earthly ministry 2000 years ago )

13And I will bring them out from the people, and gather them from the countries, and will bring them to their own land, and feed them upon the mountains of Israel by the rivers, and in all the inhabited places of the country.

For the Book of Mormon to be a valid history of an ancient people long dead, there must be Biblical evidence such a people exist. The words of Christ and Ezekiel confirm such a people are scattered world wide.


Picture taken from a wall carving from this temple in Chichen Itza, in the Yucatan peninsula. How could the natives know of a " Bearded White God " if they had never seen one?


But he answered and said, I am not sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel. Matthew 15:24


Salt Lake Utah based Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints claim Joseph Smith gave revelation and taught polygamy as God's law for the church. Read how courts of the United States and U.S. Congressional investigation ( Reed Smoot Hearings ) contradict the Utah LDS Church. Click photo link to read details.

Did Jesus Say Anything About Coming To The People On This Continent?

Jesus said: "I'm not sent but to the lost sheep of the house of Israel". ( Mathew 15:24 )


The BBC World News " gold book discovery " and other sources confirm Joseph Smith did not lie. History since 1830 proves the Book of Mormon record coming with Lehi from Jerusalem could well have been brass, that Joseph Smith could easily have translated the Book of Mormon from gold plates.

Old Negev Alphabet With Corresponding Hebrew Words

Old Negev Alphabet With Corresponding Hebrew Words
Old Negeve Alphabet Translation Sheet

Book of Mormon Evidense? Red Bird Monogram First Century

Book of Mormon Evidense? Red Bird Monogram First Century
"Jesus Christ Son of the Father"

Book of Mormon Claims and the Red Bird Stone

Book of Mormon Claims and the Red Bird Stone
An Ogam rebus in the Gaelic language it means " The Right Hand of God "

Can Book of Mormon be a true ancient record? Los Lunas New Mexico Ten Commandment Stone

Can Book of Mormon be a true ancient record? Los Lunas New Mexico Ten Commandment Stone
Los Lunas Decologue Stone

Medicine Wheel Sedona Arizona

Medicine Wheel Sedona Arizona
Todays modern Churches display what we day would call a Roman Solar Cross. Ironically, the Native American already possesed such a cross long before the White Man came to America.

The Darius Plates

The Darius Plates
Keith Garner of Menlo Park, California, holding one of two gold tablets excavated from the foundation walls of the Audience Hall ( the Apadana ) of the palace of King Darius the great King of Persia ( 521- 486 B.C. ).

The Darrius Plates

The Darrius Plates
Critics say Joseph Smith was a fool to claim he translated the Book of Mormon from gold plates. Discovery of the Darius Plates show ancient man indeed did write upon metal plates. Archaeology has proven the brass plate very well could have come from the far east as the Book of Mormon claims in 1st Nephi in Book of Mormon.